Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations (Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) in Wastewater from Gusii Treatment Plant in Kisii County, Kenya

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Rayori Douglas
Getabu Albert
Omondi Reuben
Orina Paul
Nchore Hellen
Gisacho Boniface
Nyabaro Obed
Argwings Omondi
Omweno Job


The concentrations of heavy metals were determined from wastewater samples collected from the Gusii wastewater treatment plant, from May to July, 2021. Heavy metal analysis was done using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, model AA 7000 Shimadzu, Japan. The results showed that the concentrations of Zinc and Cadmium were below the detection limit for all the sampling sites. The concentrations of Lead and Copper (Mean ± SE) ranged between 0.34 ± 0.06 mg/L and 0.86 ± 0.08 mg/L and 0.25 ± 0.05 and 0.34 ± 0.01 mg/L respectively. The month of July exhibited a higher mean Cu concentration of 0.35 ± 0.004 mg/L compared to the mean Cu concentration (0.2 ± 0.02 mg/L) of May. Likewise, the mean lead concentration of May (0.60 ± 0.04 mg/L) was higher than the mean (0.53 ± 0.05 mg/L.) of July. The independent sample t-test showed that mean Cu concentration difference was significant between the sampling months (t (34) = 21.58; p < 0.05) while for Pb it was not significant between the sampling months (t (30) = 1.241; p = 0.274). The percentage removals of Copper and Lead were generally low at 12.61 % and 6.27 %, respectively. The continued discharge of effluent into River Riana may lead to accumulation of heavy metals in the environment, which in turn poses health risks to the general public. Therefore, the study recommends that Gusii Water and Sanitation Company continue monitoring and assessing the levels of heavy metals in the treatment plant for its sustainability.

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Douglas, R., Albert, G. ., Reuben, O., Paul, O., Hellen, N., Boniface, G., Obed, N., Omondi, A., & Job, O. (2022). Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations (Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) in Wastewater from Gusii Treatment Plant in Kisii County, Kenya . Pan Africa Science Journal, 1(02), 122–138.
Environmental Ecology, Technology and Engineering


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