Pan Africa Science Journal <p>Pan-Africa Science Journal (ISSN: 2709-1473) is a peer-reviewed open access online journal that is published monthly online. PASJ aims to publish quality life science research papers. Our team of experts provides editorial excellence, fast publication, and high visibility for your paper.</p> en-US (Editor-in-Chief) (Associate Editor) Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Longitudinal fish species diversity and distribution in a medium-sized Afro-tropical river in the Lake Victoria Basin <p>Despite significantly influencing fisheries characteristics of major global basins, medium-sized rivers such as Awach Kibuon remain the least studied. This study evaluated longitudinal fish species diversity, distribution, and environmental influence in Awach Kibuon River, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, to inform sustainable management of fisheries resources within the region. Nine sites located in different zones of the river were sampled monthly for eight months in 2019 and 2020. Fish samples were collected for 45 minutes using a backpack electrofisher on a 50-m river reach in every sampling site. Selected physico-chemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, conductivity, and turbidity) were measured <em>in situ</em> using standard methods. Longitudinal river fish diversity was assessed using species richness, Simpson's Index (D), Shannon-Weiner Index (H<em>′</em>), and Pielou's Evenness Index (J). A total of 983 fish specimens belonging to 21 species, 12 genera, seven families, and six orders were caught during sampling. Cyprinidae was the most dominant family, represented by nine species, followed by Claridae, Mochokidae, and Cichlidae, represented by three species each. Longitudinal species richness, abundance, and diversity indices deviated from the expected downstream increase. Upstream stations had no fish, whereas midstream and river mouth stations had moderate and high species diversity, respectively. Pearson's correlation analyses showed that temperature, conductivity, TDS, depth, and velocity influenced fish species richness in the river. The above findings call for the inclusion of medium-sized rivers in fisheries management plans of Great Lakes Basins for sustainability.</p> George Osure, Albert Getabu, Christopher Mulanda Aura, Reuben Omondi, Evans Basweti Copyright (c) 2022 George Osure, Professor Albert Getabu, Dr. Christopher Mulanda Aura, Dr. Reuben Omondi, Professor Evans Basweti Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mapping of research Productivity on Chikungunya indexed in Web of Sciences Core Collection <p>Significant research progress has been made towards understanding the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV); however, the research productivity and milestones remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the global research outputs on CHIKV and assessed the landscape and future research directions. The Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database was used to identify the relevant publications. A bibliometric analysis was performed using the bibliometrix package in R, HistCite, and VOSviewer v. 1.6.6. A total of 3,423 relevant studies published from 1963 to 2020 were identified on October 1<sup>st </sup>2021. The mean citation score per document was 24, while Hirsch index and Collaboration Index were 124 and 3.8 respectively. The United States contributed the highest number of articles (n=659). The Institut Pasteur took the lead as the most prolific institution, having the highest number of publications (n=178). The top journal was Journal of PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases with 167 publications. Lastly, most funding for CHIKV research was from the United States Department of Health and Human Services. This article has provided a comprehensive overview of the most significant evolution in the field of CHIKV research in terms of authors, journal, country, institution, research direction, and funding agencies.</p> Taha Musa, Lovel Fornah, Akintunde Tosin Yinka , Upama Ghimire, Hassan Hussein Musa, Idriss Hussein Musa, Kayode Olayinka Afolabi Copyright (c) 2022 Taha Musa, Lovel Fornah, Akintunde Tosin Yinka , Upama Ghimire, Hassan Hussein Musa, Idriss Hussein Musa, Kayode Olayinka Afolabi Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the efficiency of Vertical Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands in the Reduction of Faecal Indicator Bacteria and Organic matter Under Varied Sizes of Gravel Substrate Aggregates <p>Constructed wetlands (CWs) polish wastewater prior to discharge into aquatic receptacles. Size variabilities of substrates used in CWS may have effects on the treatment efficiencies though there is scanty information regarding this aspect in VSSF CWs. To address this knowledge gap, a laboratory scale mesocosm experiment was set up to investigate the potential of a VSSF CW to reduce organic matter and FIB using various gravel substrate aggregate sizes. This consisted of three gravel size treatment units; &lt;12.5, 12.5-18 and 18-24 mm in triplicates. 70 liters of pre-treated wastewater from the final wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) of Egerton University’s WSPs system was added to the units, allowed to settle for 6 weeks for development of biofilms, followed by periodic feeding of equal wastewater quantity on weekly basis and influent and effluent samples collected for 8 weeks for analysis. Results disclosed reduction efficiency of 95.2, 94.3 and 88.4 % for <em>E coli</em> in the fine, medium and coarse gravel aggregates respectively. Less than 20 % reduction efficiency was recorded for BOD<sub>5</sub> in all gravel aggregate sizes. There was no significant variation on performance of the three gravel aggregate sizes in reduction of both FIB and BOD<sub>5</sub> (p˃0.05). Poor performance in BOD<sub>5</sub> reduction was related to absence of wetland macrophytes in the study. The relatively high reduction efficiency for FIB was attributed to other factors and processes such as predation, mechanical interactions, starvation, microbial interactions and natural die-offs. The study recommends assessing the combined effect of increasing the retention time, use of wetland macrophytes and incorporating various gravel aggregate sizes in order to increase the efficiency of VSSF CW in reduction of FIB and organic matter.</p> Khasisi Lukhabi, Wairimu Muia, Julius Kipkemboi Copyright (c) 2022 Khasisi Lukhabi, Wairimu Muia, Julius Kipkemboi Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000