Pan Africa Science Journal <p>Pan-Africa Science Journal (ISSN: 2709-1473) is a peer-reviewed open access online journal that is published monthly online. PASJ aims to publish quality life science research papers. Our team of experts provides editorial excellence, fast publication, and high visibility for your paper.</p> Pan-Africa Science Society en-US Pan Africa Science Journal 2709-1473 Antimicrobial Compounds Biosynthesis and Biocontrol Mechanisms of Lysobacter enzymogenes <p>Biocontrol of plant pathogens is considered an environmentally friendly strategy and it is preferred over the use of chemicals which cause environmental pollution. <em>Lysobacter enzymogenes </em>is a bacterium that has been identified as an agriculturally important biocontrol agent. <em>L. enzymogenes</em> possess antagonistic activity against numerous phytopathogens such as fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and nematodes. Its antagonistic activity is conferred by its ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites such as the Heat-Stable Anti-Fungal Factor (HSAF), Heat-Stable Degrading Metabolite (HSDM) and WAP-8294A2. It can also produce abundant lytic enzymes such as; <em>chitinases</em><em>, proteases, glucanases</em> and <em>cellulases</em> that can degrade fungal cell walls and therefore inhibit their growth. To design effective biocontrol strategies employing <em>L. enzymogenes</em>, it is important to understand its antagonistic mechanisms. This review crystalizes information on the biosynthesis mechanisms and biocontrol mechanisms of various antimicrobial compounds produced by <em>L. enzymogenes</em>, this information is essential in designing biocontrol strategies against phytopathogens. Further, this review highlights the uncharacterized HSDM and proposes the need for its future characterization, determination of its biosynthetic gene cluster and characterization of its antagonistic mechanisms against various phytopathogens. Also, the mechanism of <em>clp</em> regulation of lytic enzymes biosynthesis needs to be further studied.</p> Benard Odhiambo Copyright (c) 2021 Benard Odhiambo 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 2 01 85 102 10.47787/pasj.2021.01.22 Natural and anthropogenic changes threatening the ecological and limnological integrity of Lake Baringo, Kenya: A Review <p>Lakes are characterized by dynamic responses to ecological and limnologic disturbances that occur within a constrained timeframe. Some endorheic lakes in the Kenyan Rift valley are presently regarded as environmental hotspots because of complex changes that are revealed through multiple proxies; changing lake levels and surface area, turbidity and sedimentation, proliferation of macrophytes and loss of aquatic biodiversity. Lake Baringo is characterized by widespread catchment degradation accompanied by high levels of turbidity during erratic and decline of native fishery based on Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis. A careful analysis implicates potential natural factors such as catchment topography and increasing anthropogenic pressure as the main causes of lake ecosystem degradation. This paper recommends several strategies for restoration of Lake Baringo based on an integrated multi-faceted approach which combines catchment rehabilitation, pollution control and provision of alternative livelihoods such as agriculture to the riparian communities.</p> Job Omweno Steve Opiyo Argwings Omondi Wilfred Zablon Copyright (c) 2021 Job Omweno, Steve Opiyo, Argwings Omondi, Wilfred Zablon 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 2 01 103 121 10.47787/pasj.2021.01.23