Pan Africa Science Journal <p>Pan-Africa Science Journal (ISSN: 2709-1473) is a peer-reviewed open access online journal that is published monthly online. PASJ aims to publish quality life science research papers. Our team of experts provides editorial excellence, fast publication, and high visibility for your paper.</p> Pan-Africa Science Society en-US Pan Africa Science Journal 2709-1473 Abundance, diversity and distribution of Macrophytes in lotic wetlands: A case study on Sironga and Kapkatet Wetlands, Kenya <p>Wetland macrophytes provide important ecological and social-economic values. However, the recent increase in anthropogenic influences has compromised the ecological integrity of most lotic wetlands, which has ultimately threatened their structure and functioning, causing degradation and loss of macrophytes. This study was aimed at assessing the biodiversity, distribution and abundance of macrophytes in Sironga and Kapkatet wetlands with respect to various anthropogenic activities. Sampling was conducted for a period of six months, covering both dry and wet seasons from February – July 2019. Macrophytes were identified using identification keys and diversity indices such as the Shannon-Wiener, Simpson’s, and Species evenness were used to determine macrophyte diversities. The numbers of different macrophytes species was enumerated from five randomly sampled line transects along the water ways and another fifteen also randomly distributed on the wetlands on a monthly basis. There were three main lifeforms of aquatic macrophytes found in both Sironga and Kapaktet wetlands namely, emerged, submerged and floating, which were dominated by Centella asciatica and Cyperus sp. and the floating macrophytes, Potamogeton schwenfurthii dominated Kapaktet wetland. The study found that macrophyte distribution, abundance and biodiversity were highly affected by predominant economic activities resulting to wetland conversion, nutrient influxes and unsustainable exploitation of macrophytes. We recommend a further study focusing on effects of sedimentation resulting from unsustainable agricultural practices on water quality and macrophytes diversity, distribution and abundance, the effects of changing land-use practices and how different environmental agencies can be involved in the advocacy, conservation and management of the riverine wetlands.</p> Angima Merceline Akama John Argwings Omondi Omweno Job Mungai Dan Copyright (c) 2022 Angima Merceline, Akama John, Argwings Omondi, Omweno Job, Mungai Dan 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 1 02 139 162 10.47787/pasj.v1i02.11 Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations (Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) in Wastewater from Gusii Treatment Plant in Kisii County, Kenya <p>The concentrations of heavy metals were determined from wastewater samples collected from the Gusii wastewater treatment plant, from May to July, 2021. Heavy metal analysis was done using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, model AA 7000 Shimadzu, Japan. The results showed that the concentrations of Zinc and Cadmium were below the detection limit for all the sampling sites. The concentrations of Lead and Copper (Mean ± SE) ranged between 0.34 ± 0.06 mg/L and 0.86 ± 0.08 mg/L and 0.25 ± 0.05 and 0.34 ± 0.01 mg/L respectively. The month of July exhibited a higher mean Cu concentration of 0.35 ± 0.004 mg/L compared to the mean Cu concentration (0.2 ± 0.02 mg/L) of May. Likewise, the mean lead concentration of May (0.60 ± 0.04 mg/L) was higher than the mean (0.53 ± 0.05 mg/L.) of July. The independent sample t-test showed that mean Cu concentration difference was significant between the sampling months (<em>t</em> <sub>(34)</sub> = 21.58; <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) while for Pb it was not significant between the sampling months (<em>t</em> <sub>(30)</sub> = 1.241; <em>p </em>= 0.274). The percentage removals of Copper and Lead were generally low at 12.61 % and 6.27 %, respectively. The continued discharge of effluent into River Riana may lead to accumulation of heavy metals in the environment, which in turn poses health risks to the general public. Therefore, the study recommends that Gusii Water and Sanitation Company continue monitoring and assessing the levels of heavy metals in the treatment plant for its sustainability.</p> Rayori Douglas Getabu Albert Omondi Reuben Orina Paul Nchore Hellen Gisacho Boniface Nyabaro Obed Argwings Omondi Omweno Job Copyright (c) 2022 Rayori Douglas, Getabu Albert, Omondi Reuben, Orina Paul, Nchore Hellen, Gisacho Boniface, Nyabaro Obed, Argwings Omondi, Omweno Job 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 1 02 122 138 10.47787/pasj.v1i02.12 Investigating the efficiency of Vertical Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands in the Reduction of Faecal Indicator Bacteria and Organic matter Under Varied Sizes of Gravel Substrate Aggregates <p>Constructed wetlands (CWs) polish wastewater prior to discharge into aquatic receptacles. Size variabilities of substrates used in CWS may have effects on the treatment efficiencies though there is scanty information regarding this aspect in VSSF CWs. To address this knowledge gap, a laboratory scale mesocosm experiment was set up to investigate the potential of a VSSF CW to reduce organic matter and FIB using various gravel substrate aggregate sizes. This consisted of three gravel size treatment units; &lt;12.5, 12.5-18 and 18-24 mm in triplicates. 70 liters of pre-treated wastewater from the final wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) of Egerton University’s WSPs system was added to the units, allowed to settle for 6 weeks for development of biofilms, followed by periodic feeding of equal wastewater quantity on weekly basis and influent and effluent samples collected for 8 weeks for analysis. Results disclosed reduction efficiency of 95.2, 94.3 and 88.4 % for <em>E coli</em> in the fine, medium and coarse gravel aggregates respectively. Less than 20 % reduction efficiency was recorded for BOD<sub>5</sub> in all gravel aggregate sizes. There was no significant variation on performance of the three gravel aggregate sizes in reduction of both FIB and BOD<sub>5</sub> (p˃0.05). Poor performance in BOD<sub>5</sub> reduction was related to absence of wetland macrophytes in the study. The relatively high reduction efficiency for FIB was attributed to other factors and processes such as predation, mechanical interactions, starvation, microbial interactions and natural die-offs. The study recommends assessing the combined effect of increasing the retention time, use of wetland macrophytes and incorporating various gravel aggregate sizes in order to increase the efficiency of VSSF CW in reduction of FIB and organic matter.</p> Khasisi Lukhabi Wairimu Muia Julius Kipkemboi Copyright (c) 2022 Khasisi Lukhabi, Wairimu Muia, Julius Kipkemboi 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 1 02 187 214 10.47787/pasj.v1i02.15 Knowledge and Attitude towards Exclusive Breast Feeding among Mothers Attending Antenatal Care (ANC) in Brikama District Hospital, Brikama, Gambia <p>The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommend starting breastfeeding within the first hour after birth, exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months, and continuing for up to two years or beyond, in addition to adequate complementary foods. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from 384 mothers attending antennal health care at Brikama District Hospital in Brikama, Gambia, from 1<sup>st</sup> June to 30<sup>th</sup> June. The mean age (standard deviation (SD)) of the women was 26.69(±5.67) years and ranged from 16 to 49 years. Majority of the women were married (92.19 %) and from extended families (67.19 %). The findings indicate that majority of participants knew about EBF (88.28%) from health workers (58.22%). Furthermore, most mothers preferred breastfeeding for up to two years of age (58.85%) and agreed that babies should be breastfed on demand (65.63%). The knowledge and attitude of mothers towards EBF was very high and positive. Overall, most respondents knew about (85.94%) and favored (69.79%) EBF. </p> Edrisa Jawo Alpha Kargbo Evelyn Anuli Mendy Matty Kah Pierre A Mendy Edward Mendy Fatmata Ceesay Ousman Jallow Moses Edache Entomu Copyright (c) 2022 Edrisa Jawo, Alpha Kargbo, Evelyn Anuli Mendy, Matty Kah, Pierre A Mendy, Edward Mendy, Fatmata Ceesay, Ousman Jallow, Moses Edache Entomu 2022-02-25 2022-02-25 1 02 163 186 10.47787/pasj.v1i02.13