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IL-16, risk factor, coronary artery disease, Sudan
The inflammatory process in the atherosclerotic artery may lead to increased blood levels of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study is to understand the role of inflammatory markers in the development of coronary artery disease. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted amongst coronary artery disease patients who attended the Sudan Heart Institute and healthy controls. Questionnaires were designed to determine the lifestyle and environmental factors for 200 participants (100 cases, 100 controls). Blood samples were collected to measure lipids profiles using enzymatic colorimetric and DNA extraction using the G-spin Kits. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for IL-6 and IL-16 genotyping. A total of 64% patients were males, 41% were at 51-61 years, and physical activity was common in 60% of the patients. The risk factors for coronary artery disease were hypertension 62%, angina 62%, cigarette smoking 38%, diabetes 33%, tobacco user 31%, drinking alcohol 24% and stroke 2%. Most patients had a family history of stroke 93%, hypertension 36%, diabetes 34%, angina 9%, and heart attack 4%. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were significantly different (P>0.05) between cases and controls, and they were significantly associated with IL-16 genotype. All risk factors for coronary artery diseases were strongly associated with IL-6 genotype (P-value < 0.05, OR >1). Whereas, IL-16 homozygous TT genotype was significantly associated with gender and physical activity. Lifestyle, family history, and IL-16 (TT) genotype are risk factors for coronary artery disease in Sudanese patients.