Main Article Content
Despite significantly influencing fisheries characteristics of major global basins, medium-sized rivers such as Awach Kibuon remain the least studied. This study evaluated longitudinal fish species diversity, distribution, and environmental influence in Awach Kibuon River, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, to inform sustainable management of fisheries resources within the region. Nine sites located in different zones of the river were sampled monthly for eight months in 2019 and 2020. Fish samples were collected for 45 minutes using a backpack electrofisher on a 50-m river reach in every sampling site. Selected physico-chemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, conductivity, and turbidity) were measured in situ using standard methods. Longitudinal river fish diversity was assessed using species richness, Simpson's Index (D), Shannon-Weiner Index (H′), and Pielou's Evenness Index (J). A total of 983 fish specimens belonging to 21 species, 12 genera, seven families, and six orders were caught during sampling. Cyprinidae was the most dominant family, represented by nine species, followed by Claridae, Mochokidae, and Cichlidae, represented by three species each. Longitudinal species richness, abundance, and diversity indices deviated from the expected downstream increase. Upstream stations had no fish, whereas midstream and river mouth stations had moderate and high species diversity, respectively. Pearson's correlation analyses showed that temperature, conductivity, TDS, depth, and velocity influenced fish species richness in the river. The above findings call for the inclusion of medium-sized rivers in fisheries management plans of Great Lakes Basins for sustainability.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
African Water Facility. Republic of kenya integrated land and water management in
the Kibuon and Tende rivers. Appraisal report - African Development Bank, 2008.
American Public Health Association Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st Edition. Washington, DC: APHAAWWA-WEF, 2005.
Arau´jo, F.G.; Pinto, B.C.T.; Teixeira, T.P. Longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages in a large tropical river in southeastern Brazil: evaluating environmental influences and some concepts in river ecology. Hydrobiologia, 2009; 618, 89-107. DOI 10.1007/s10750-008-9551-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-008-9551-5
Aura, C.M.; Musa, S.; Njiru, J.; Ogello, E.O.; Kundu, R. Fish-restocking of lakes in Kenya: should solemnly be an environmental issue, 39-60pp. In, Adoyo, W. A. & Wangai, C. I. African Political, Social and Economic Issues: Kenya Political, Social and Environmental Issues. NOVA Science Publishers, Inc. New York. USA. ISBN: 978-1-62081-085-9, 2013.
Bibi, F.; Ali, Z. Measurement of diversity indices of avian communities at Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan. The journal of animal & plant science, 2013; 23(2), 469-474.
Bhat, A. Patterns in the distribution of freshwater fishes in rivers of Central Western Ghats, India and their associations with environmental gradients. Hydrobiologia, 2004; 529, 83-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-4949-1
Foubert, A.; Lecomte, F.; Legendre, P.; Cusson, M. Spatial organisation of fish communities in the St. Lawrence River: a test for longitudinal gradients and spatial heterogeneities in a large river system. Hydrobiologia, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3457-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3457-z
Funk, J.L.; Campbell, R.S. The population of larger fishes in Black River, Missouri. University of Missouri Studies, 1953; 26 (2), 69-82.
Ghimire, S.; Koju, N.P. Fish diversity and its relationship with environmental variables in Kamala River, Nepal. Biodiversitas, 2021; 22 (11), 4865-4871. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d221119
Griffith, B.; Hill, B.H.; McCormick, F.H.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Herlihye, A.T.; Selle, A.R.
Comparative application of indices of biotic integrity based on periphyton, macroinvertebrates and fish to southern Rocky Mountain streams. Ecological Indicators, 2005; 5, 117-136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2004.11.001
Hawkes, H.A. River zonation and classification. In Whitton, B. A. (ed.), River Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford: 312–374, 1975.
Huet, M. Profiles and biology of western European streams as related to fisheries management. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 1959; 88, 155-163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1959)88[155:PABOWE]2.0.CO;2
Hu, M.; Wang, C.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Jian, S. Fish species composition, distribution and community structure in the lower reaches of Ganjiang River, Jiangxi, China. Scientific Reports, 2019; 9, 10100. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46600-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46600-2
Hynes, H.B.N. The ecology of running waters. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, England. 555 pp., 1970.
Ibanez, C.; Oberdorff, T.; Teugels, G.; Mamononekene, V.; Lavoue´, S.; Fermon, Y.; Paugy, D.; Toham, A.K. Fish assemblages structure and function along environmental gradients in rivers of Gabon (Africa). Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 2007; 16, 315-334. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0633.2006.00222.x
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya Population and Housing Census, Volume II: Distribution of Population by Administrative Units, 11-12, 2019.
Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Collecting Biological Information from the Fishes of Lake Victoria. LVFO Standard Operating Procedures No. 1, LVFO, Jinja. ISBN 9970-713-12-0, 2007.
Lamb, E.G.; Bayne, E.; Holloway, G.; Schieck, J.; Boutin, S.; Herbers, J.; Haughland, D.L. Indices for monitoring biodiversity change: Are some more effective than others? Ecological indicators, 2008; 9, 432 - 444 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2008.06.001
Lasne, A.E.; Bergerot, B.; Lek, S.; Laffaille, P. Fish Zonation and Indicator Species for the Evaluation of the Ecological Status of Rivers: Example of the Loire Basin (France). River Research Applications (in press), 2007. DOI: 10.1002/rra. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.1030
Lazorchak, J.M.; Klemm, D.J.; Peck, D.V. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Surface Waters: Field Operations and Methods Manual for Measuring the Ecological Condition of Wadeable Streams. EPA 620/R-94/004F. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 1998.
Lowe-McConnell, R. H. Fish Communities in Tropical Freshwaters: Their Distribution, Ecology and Evolution, Longman, London, England, 1975.
Margalef, R.D. Information theory in ecology. General Systems, 1958; 36-71.
Masese, F. O.; Achieng’, A.O.; Raburu, P. O.; Lawrence, T.; Ives, J.T.; Nyamweya, C.; Kaunda‐Arara, B. Distribution patterns and diversity of riverine fishes of the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. International Review of Hydrobiology, 2020; 105, 171-184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/iroh.202002039
Mikembi, A.L.B.; Zamba, A.I.; Mamonekene, V.; Ngot, H.F.P.; Tenda, H.D.L.; Vouidibio, J. Diversity and distribution of fish species along the Loua River, lower Congo river basin (Republic of the Congo, Central Africa). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 2019; 7(3), 171-176.
Mwangi, B.M.; Mornica, A.O.; Amadi, J.; Ntambi, B.; Mugalu, D. Fish Species Composition and Diversity of Small Riverine Ecosystems in the. International Journal of Science and Technology, 2012; 2, (9), 675-680.
Mwangi, T.J.K.; Maobe, S.N.; Ondicho, A.R.; Kidula, N.L.; Magenya, O.V.; Onyango, M.; Ojowi, M.; ... Makini, F. Reconnaissance Survey of the Kibuon and Tende River Catchment of Southwest Kenya. African Journal of Agriculture and Utilisation of Natural Resources for Sustainable Development, 2015; 1, 22-37.
Njiru, J. M.; Sitoki, L.; Nyamweya, C.S.; Jembe, T.; Aura, M.C.; Waithaka, E.; Masese, F.O. Habitat degradation and changes in Lake Victoria fisheries. In: W.A. Adoyo, & C. I. Wangai (Eds.), Environmental degradation: Causes, issues and management, p. 1-34). Hauppauge, NY: NOVA Publishers, 2012.
Orina, E.N. Ecosystem Integrity Indices Based on Fish Diversity and Physico-Chemical Parameters in River Kuja, Kenya. Msc. Thesis, Kisii University pp. 32, 2018.
Ouma, S.O.; Ngeranwa, J.N.; Juma, K.K.; Mburu, D.N. Seasonal variation of the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of water from five rural catchment areas of Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya. Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 2016; 3, 170. DOI: 10.4172jreac.1000170
Pielou, E.C. The Measurement of Diversity in Different Types of Biological Collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 1966; 13, 131-144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(66)90013-0
Scott, M.C.; Hall, L.W. Jr. Fish Assemblages as Indicators of Environmental Degradation in Maryland Coastal Plain Streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 1997; 126, 349-360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1997)126<0349:FAAIOE>2.3.CO;2
Simpson, E.H. Measurement of diversity. Nature, 1949; 163, 688. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/163688a0
Suryaningsih, S.; Sukmaningrum, S.; Simanjuntak, S.B.I.; Kusbiyanto. Diversity and longitudinal distribution of freshwater fish in Klawing River, Central Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 2018; 19 (1), 85-92. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d190114. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d190114
Suvarnaraksha, A. Lek, S.; Lek-Ang, S.; Jutagate, T. Fish diversity and assemblage patterns along the longitudinal gradient of a tropical river in the Indo-Burma hotspot region (Ping-Wang River Basin, Thailand). Hydrobiologia, 2012; 694, 153-169. DOI 10.1007/s10750-012-1139-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-012-1139-4
Temesgen, B.; Tadesse, Z.; Temesgen, M. Diversity, distribution and abundance of fish species in upper Awash River Basin, West Showa Zone, Ethiopia. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2021; 7, 1974181. DOI: 10.1080/23311932.2021.1974181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2021.1974181
Toham, K.M.; Tuegels, G.G. Diversity patterns of fish assemblages in the Lower Ntem River Basin (Cameroon), with notes on potential effects of deforestation. Arch. Hydrobiol. 1998; 141 (4), 441-446. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1127/archiv-hydrobiol/141/1998/421
Twesigye, C.K.; Onywere, S.M.; Getenga, Z.M.; Mwakalila, S.S.; Nakiranda, J.K. The impact of land use activities on vegetation cover and water quality in the Lake Victoria watershed. The Open Environmental Journal, 2011; 4, 66-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1874829501104010066
Vannote, R.L.; Minshall, G.W.; Sedell, J.R.; Cushing, C.E. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1980; 37, 130-137. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/f80-017
Ward, J.V.; Stanford, J.A. The serial discontinuity concept of lotic ecosystems. In Fontaine, T.D. & S.M. Bartell (Eds.), In Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Michigan: 29–42, 1983.
Wu, J.; Wang, J.; He, Y.; Cao, W. Fish assemblage structure in the Chishui River, a protected tributary of the Yangtze River. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 2011; 400, 11. DOI: 10.1051/kmae/2011023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2011023